Jet stream weather charts for Es research - chart drawer

Discussion in 'Radio Propagation Questions' started by Jim Bacon g3yla, May 1, 2015.

  1. Friday 19th May 2017

    The main feature on the 300mb upper air charts for today is undoubtedly the major upper trough over the British Isles. Ahead of this, we find an upper ridge over Central Europe and, ahead of that, a northerly jet stream from western Russia to Greece. This particular jet stream seems to be delivering some turbulence as it crosses the mountainous regions of the Balkans with a cluster of paths over this area. Not reachable from the UK, but nice to see a correlation with the jet stream/mountains and Es.

    Another 6m set of paths picks out an area just west of Sardinia, which is the location of the base of the sharp upper trough, which is affecting the UK. This western Mediterranean basin has all the necessary ingredients of jet stream and sharply rising/falling contours and, in addition, the axis of the trough is pushing forwards quite markedly between the time steps; so all good reasons to expect turbulence.

    Regarding the trough over UK and its bordering jet stream flows, there are good reasons to suspect that paths to the NE into Scandinavia should be worth exploring, since they would cross the southeasterly jet stream ahead of the trough; and it may even be worth considering the odd period beaming towards TF, capturing any triggers caused by the jet stream crossing the Scottish Highlands. The northwesterly part of the jet stream which crosses Biscay and Spain is also a very good candidate in today's selection, since it embodies rising contours within the blue lines and interaction with the mountains of northern Spain and later today, the Pyrenees.

    73 de Jim
  2. Saturday 20th May 2017

    I'm on an early shift today, so limited time to add commentary this morning...

    There's a good supply of jet stream material today and much of it will be accessible from the UK, useful if it were to produce some gravity wave turbulence for making Es. I'll start with the strong southeasterly jet stream over the Low Countries and the North Sea, which will be a good source of turbulence and there have already been some Es up to 6m over the North Sea just north of Holland. This zone of strong winds will slowly edge eastwards, but remain within reach today, and therefore I would suggest beaming at LA/SM/OH/Baltic as good choices.

    The other region is on the western side of the sharp upper trough over eastern Britain, and this is a northwesterly jet which is blowing across Ireland into Biscay and the Pyrenees. There are regions of rapidly rising contour heights here and this, together with the effect of the Pyrenees, means that paths to the south into EA/IS0 could be possibilities from the UK later. Remember that because of the rotation of the earth, the favourable upper tidal winds in the E region migrate westwards and this puts paths to Spain at the tail end of the morning and late afternoon Es 'windows'.

    The pattern is too complex to mention all the smaller jet stream elements, but I'm sure other paths across the various jets will all be capable of throwing up a few random paths, although not necessarily from Britain. By the way, don't ignore the option of looking across the Highlands towards TF and OY.

    73 de Jim
  3. Sunday 21st May 2017

    Another complex looking jet stream chart this morning and, although none of the European players are especially strong, they are very numerous, so this should provide opportunities for most directions from the UK.

    The Balkans look well served with two small upper lows with small jet stream segments around them. These should provide several localised regions of gravity wave wave generation and already there are paths plotted on the clusters centred on western Bulgaria. These are out of reach for a first hop, but these regions could form part of a multi-hop path from the UK.

    The next most likely options are probably going to be to do with the sharp upper trough over the North Sea with the small jet stream segments either side of the trough axis. This appears to be a region of rapidly changing height values with the red and blue lines enclosing areas where the values are changing and so might also be good locations for generating gravity waves. Its a good idea to add paths to Scandinavia to todays list of directions.

    Other features of interest are to do with the jet stream across Spain and western France, which could open up paths to the south, especially where this albeit weak flow impinges upon the Pyrenees and Alps.

    Such is the complexity of jet streams today that any option is worth checking and the above highlights the strongest features. I note that the Atlantic is starting to fill with a nice looking jet stream wave train, so may provide some stepping stones across to the States later today.

    73 de Jim

  4. Monday 22nd May 2017

    The central part of Europe is looking a bit quieter today, but there are some smaller features which may contribute to the Es locations if we look hard enough.

    Over in the east, the small cut-off upper low over the Black Sea is surrounded by minor jet stream segments and the paths already flagged for 6m are crossing the jet stream to the west of the centre over the Balkans. Staying over in the east, there is quite a solid looking southwesterly jet stream over the eastern Mediterranean basin and this could produce paths from 4X to SV for example.

    Weak ridges and very small paths of stronger flow in central Europe could play a role, since they are at a good location for paths from the UK. I did notice some very fine detailed cirrus cloud yesterday as it crossed the UK, and this is now over mid continent. I mention it because it is typical of summer ridge patterns and is a signal of turbulent motions at that height, even though no jet stream is present.

    The third item to mention is the very strong Atlantic jet stream pushing into Britain. Several directions become available from this as it generates gravity waves needed to produce Es. The most obvious being the core of the jet stream over the Highlands and therefore paths, say, from southern Uk to OY/TF look possible outcomes. The southern end of this flow over Biscay and western France also could feature, especially since there are strong rising contours (within the blue lines) initially. Paths to the south into EA etc. look the more likely outcome.

    Finally, two other lesser areas to mention. The small cut-off low over southern Norway has the look of something that could generate gravity waves, so possible paths to LA/SM, while looking to the west, the Atlantic has an extended jet stream link down towards the Caribbean.

    73 de Jim

  5. Tuesday 23rd May 2017

    A busy time at the moment for Es, but as is typical of this mode, it is rare for all parts of the UK to be able to access it at the same time.

    The main area at present is over the southern Baltic along the coast of Poland. There are numerous paths between central Europe and Scandinavia. These appear to be aligned with the advancing front of the northwesterly jet stream blowing down across Scotland into northern Germany. On the forward edge of this flow there appears to be a region of shear and marked by an arc of cloud on the satellite pictures. This type of cloud edge was over eastern England yesterday evening and looked very promising then. The conclusion is that this area is moving away fairly steadily eastwards, so will remain out of reach from the UK.

    The southern side of this jet stream has produced some interest over the English Channel and western France and are is also migrating east, so paths from central and northern UK may find a beam direction to the south-southeast worthwhile.

    The Atlantic is beginning to form a nice contorted looking wave train and should be worth exploring for paths to the States, particularly during the second half of today.

    73 de Jim

  6. Wednesday 24th May 2017

    There are some quite useful potential weather triggers for Es today and their positioning should be favourable for paths from the UK, so a good day to set aside some quality shack time for the 10m and 6m bands.

    The main item of interest is the strong northwesterly jet stream blowing southeastwards from Iceland down across the North Sea into Europe, crossing the Alps before finishing over southern Italy. Anywhere along this track, there could be some gravity waves generated, which might go on to determine the location of any Es. The current early morning 6m paths seem to be over the southern end of the jet stream across the eastern Mediterranean basin on the forward edge of this strong jet stream flow. Its the same properties that crossed the UK on Monday creating the turbulent cirrus clouds. The net result of all this is that you should try any paths from northeast to SM/OH round through east to SP/Baltic and thence to southeast for HA/UX/LZ/YO etc.

    The small 300hPa circulation over the Baltic states is remarkably persistent and may again be a region of turbulence and produce some Es, although its probably just out of reach from UK.

    Casting the net wider you will see strong jet streams over northwest Russia and central Russia. Obviously too far to consider for first hop paths, but may form the basis of multi-hop routes to the far east.

    The Atlantic looks to be set up nicely for several 'stepping stone' jet stream segments to the States, so worth taking the beams round that way to test the water now and again.

    73 de Jim

  7. Thursday 25th May 2017

    The fine summer weather continues and typically is doing a good job producing some Es this morning, up to 6m at present.

    The main feature is still the northerly jet stream blowing south from Norway across eastern Europe into southern Italy. This is an active region for generating gravity waves, turbulence which can extend upwards to the E region and contribute to making Es form. There are several paths across this jet stream flow along its whole length, which means try any direction form NE round to SE to cash in on this weather trigger. This is a particularly active feature on 10m, but even on 6m is giving a good account of itself. This movement of the axis of this strong upper air flow is very slow, even though the winds within it are fast, so it should remain available for the rest of today.

    The second and currently active region is an upper ridge pattern, which extends from eastern Spain north into the southern UK. These are less common features for making Es, but appears to be delivering several paths across the Pyrenees into southern Spain and EA8 and CN, so well worth a look.

    Elsewhere the Atlantic is showing a nice jet stream wave train with troughs and ridges separated by jet stream segments, which like yesterday, could provide stepping stones to the States.

    73 de Jim

  8. Friday 26th May 2017

    There is a very striking upper ridge over the near continent with a jet stream flow around the edge. The northerly jet stream from Norway down to Italy is a good place to look for Es and there have already been several paths across it on both 10m and 6m. It should remain close enough to access during today, although the strength of the flow does decrease with time, so its maybe a less useful weather trigger going forward. I particularly like the look of the stronger jet stream segment over northern Norway where the jet stream intersects the Norwegian mountains.

    The upper ridge itself is worth considering as a region of turbulence in view of recent days, but it is often hard to attribute the cause of any Es to these features, since they often encompass the edge of a nearby jet stream so could be either weather element which generates the gravity waves.

    A fairly sharp upper trough approaching Ireland has some strong jet stream flow ahead of it and could have a part to play for paths across Ireland and Scotland to OY/TF. It is already contributing to paths beaming to the south across Spain and Portugal towards the Canaries and as big thunderstorms develop today this will provide yet another trigger for paths in this direction.

    Lastly, a look across the Atlantic reveals that the meandering jet stream is still contorted enough to support several stepping stones for paths to the States.

    73 de Jim
  9. Saturday 27th May 2017

    A very active jet stream picture this morning with a strongly meandering flow extending right across the Atlantic and Europe. Patterns that are as busy as this one can make it hard to identify individual weather sources for the gravity waves produced by turbulence in the troposphere (the weather bit), which then propagate upwards to reach the E region where the wave motion can become a key ingredient for producing Es. The result is often a very busy 'multiple-paths look' to 10m and its only by moving up in frequency that enables the more active regions to separate out. So far this morning 10m is full of activity (CQ WW?) and since its the distance from the Es which determines who gets in on the action; northwestern UK doing better than the east coast at present since the Es hotspots are quite close over the near continent.

    Too many weather triggers to list individually, but the key players are the northerly jet stream from Scandinavia down across Eastern Europe to the eastern Mediterranean basin. These are probably too remote for first skip, but could form part of a multi-hop path.
    Next we have the upper ridge, which is probably doing a lot of the heavy lifting this morning, plus some thunderstorm activity over southeast UK and eastern France. Parts of the UK (NW) could be just right for these two weather triggers.
    The jet stream over western Britain with a small area of thundery low pressure moving north over western Britain is likely to be a good source of gravity waves, so this time it would be stations in eastern UK who benefit if beaming to OY/TF.
    Lastly the Atlantic is set up very well again, and with parallel flows, could support paths to the USA as well as more southern route to the Caribbean and South America.

    Can we have too much of a good thing? Nah...

    73 de Jim
  10. Sunday 28th May 2017

    This time all the normal rules breakdown since we have a very high K index, its currently K=6, and in the normal Es parlance, this would mean no chance except for auroral Es in the more northern latitudes. Es is never afraid to throw out the rule book and it just shows how important each new event is in compiling a better overview of what actually happens. So thanks to those who have tested the bands and logged those rare paths, it is really useful to have days when it doesn't go to plan!

    The paths so far have been few and mainly over more southern latitudes, either across the western Mediterranean basin from Sardinia to Greece and Israel. These are across the deep upper trough pattern with a jet stream flow around the rim, so the usual rules apply and jet streams are probably generating the turbulence which produces the gravity that propagate unto the E region. However, the old rule of thumb that the K index ideally should be low, say 3 or less, is not looking so secure, although the high K index has certainly reduced the activity levels.

    The other isolated paths are across the Alps on the axis of the upper ridge, again following the usual rules and a big mark-down on yesterday's activity levels when the K index was low.

    There are other triggers to mention of course, although not producing any paths at the moment. They are: a large are of heavy thunderstorms over northern France, which will edge slowly northwards later. The strong jet stream across northern Scandinavia, should be good for auroral Es if they materialise. The close-to-home jet stream across Spain and Biscay and the UK should also be a good location, especially beaming south to Spain. The Atlantic is still full of jet stream activity, so don't ignore paths to the Americas and Caribbean.

    Hopefully for Es, the K index will reduce to more traditional values for larger scale openings, since there are certainly enough weather components for us today. Lastly it also worth remembering that the migration of the tides in the wind flow within the E region (part of the Es production mechanism) moves from east to west and although openings have been over the eastern side of Europe so far, the expected trend is for the emphasis to shift towards the west as the tide migrates. This is true of both the morning and evening phase of the Es openings.

    73 de Jim

  11. Monday 29th May 2017

    The K index has subsided back to more useful values for Es and now stands at K=2. The bands are a little better today with some paths showing within Europe on 6m and more widely on 10m.

    There seem to be two areas of interest this morning; the first is over southwest Poland and is located on the small jet stream segment extending from Norway into the Baltic. It is edging slowly eastwards, so is likely to remain out of reach from the UK for most stations. It is worth noting that the models develop some severe thunderstorms over there today associated with the minor trough in the pattern which is moving southeast across the Baltic into western Russia.

    The large amplitude upper ridge is a dominant feature on the charts again and its the other region of interest at the moment since there is a second cluster of paths crossing the ridge axis over the Low Countries. These are accessible from the UK and, on 10m, is doing good business this morning. It remains in place during today and, in addition, gains some severe thunderstorm activity this afternoon making paths towards I, IS0 etc worth a look.

    The minor jet stream segment over the Balkans and southern Italy has produced some 10m paths earlier and remains out of reach, but may become part of a multi-hop path to the eastern Mediterranean and 4x4.

    The southerly jet stream over Britain will continue to edge very slowly eastwards, but remains a good candidate for paths from the near continent to GM/OY/TF. Looking the other way, it should also favour paths to Spain and western Mediterranean and with help from the southern branch of the jet stream heading into Portugal, may also open up paths to EA8.

    The Atlantic is fully stocked with jet streams and therefore a check to the States and Caribbean is worth doing later today.

    73 de Jim
  12. Tuesday 30th May 2017

    Well, it s all been kicking off this morning with widespread openings on 6m within Europe and even across to JA for some lucky stations.

    The main part of the European sector opening is being driven by the broad upper ridge which has been a consistent provider over the last few days as it has made its slow move into Europe from the UK where it gave the very warm weather at the end of last week. This will remain in place today and will be further complicated by a large area of severe thunderstorms shown by the magenta 'blobs' which reach their peak later this afternoon. Thunderstorms are also thought to be generators of gravity waves which can propagate from the cloud tops up into the E region.

    There is also a small jet stream segment over the Balkans as a northeasterly flow around the cur-off upper low over Turkey. A northeasterly jet stream seems to be a good choice for Es patches in this area from previous years. It may be linked to the Es which show up on over eastern Ukraine, which seem to be near the entrance region of this small jet. The entrances and exits of these jet stream segments are very good places for extra turbulence, which we need to make the gravity waves.

    The real talking point of this morning are the Es contacts with JA and, of course, for this you need multiple hops using many different jet stream segments to be in just the right geometry to make the multi-hop path, much like in the other direction when working the States. The 300hPa charts in the sequence below show how many such segments there are, when looking towards the east across Russia and Asia. The more years I spend looking at the wider 300hPa charts; I find that these multiple wave trains of strong jet stream winds across northern latitudes is a surprisingly common feature in the summer months. Scroll down to the bottom of the regular chart to see the actual jet stream (>60kt) wind measurements at 300hPa from midnight and they show the presence of several good candidates for the JA paths this morning.

    Other jet streams exist, but not enough time to mention them all. The Atlantic is still well supported with jet streams for paths to the Americas and, of particular note, I think that the sharp upper trough crossing Scotland today should be worth exploring for paths to OY and TF. Finally a mention for the small jet stream across Portugal and southern Spain, which may be involved with the openings to EA8 earlier.

    73 de Jim

  13. Wednesday 31st May 2017

    Another good day yesterday with plentiful openings for much of Europe and some exotic paths to JA, as indeed there have been again this morning. Once again then, we have a good selection of jet streams across northern Scandinavia and Russia to support the earlier paths to the Far East. The pattern remains good for tomorrow for these long haul paths, given suitable K index figures.

    The major European centre of activity is over the eastern Alps and Hungary, which is once more co-located with the ever-giving upper ridge. This is a slow moving feature and will remain useable as it collapses across the Balkans later today. There will be some new thunderstorms developing over this region this afternoon to give another potential reason to trigger the generation of gravity waves.

    There is a small upper low over the Pyrenees which could develop a weak jet stream flow across the western end of the Alps to give some paths down into the central Mediterranean to Corsica and Sardinia. To the west of this a new upper ridge will move into Spain and Biscay, not too sure of its abilities yet, since its not such a well-developed feature as its predecessor, which has been such a splendid producer of Es.

    The Atlantic is well served with jet stream components again so once more worth looking across the pond later.

    73 de Jim

  14. Thursday 1st June 2017

    There have been a few paths showing on the clusters on 6m this morning, but quite a random selection directions.

    The long standing upper ridge, which is still hanging on over the Balkans, would appear to be behind the paths across Greece and Turkey connecting northern Italy with Cyprus and Israel. This double hop link is probably supported over the Balkans by the upper ridge and over western Turkey by a weak jet stream.

    Other directions of interest are across Germany and Poland using the strong northwesterly jet stream from Norway down across eastern Europe. This is a useful jet stream in that it is expected to strengthen, especially the section over Scandinavia. This could suggest that paths to SM/OH are worth attention today. There has a also been a path from Germany to the Faeroes, presumably using the advancing upper ridge now moving out across the North Sea.

    Incidentally, there have been a few isolated paths across Eastern Europe and the Black Sea, both connected to jet streams, which remain in play through the rest of today.

    The early paths to the Far East also made use of the waving jet stream flow across northern Russia to form stepping stones across jet stream segments between OH and JA. These paths are quite complicated and rely upon at least three of the Es windows when the semi diurnal tidal winds in the E region at 120km, combine with vertically propagating gravity waves generated by the jet streams in the weather 100km below. Many things have to be right and the geometry means that there are very spots at either end which satisfy the exacting requirements for the total path to be set up.

    The Atlantic is still well stocked with jet stream segments to hopefully give some options for paths to the Americas later today.

    73 de Jim

  15. Friday 2nd June 2017

    Another excellent day yesterday and it looks like today is getting off to a promising start with some paths up to 70MHz and certainly 50MHz looking very busy within Europe so far.

    The main feature this morning is probably the broad upper ridge over the near continent and the small cut-off upper low over northern Italy with its minor jet stream segments around it. All these features, when added to the presence of developing thunderstorms today, will make just about any path towards the continent and Scandinavia worth checking, as evidenced by the paths on 6m so far.

    The approaching Atlantic jet stream is going to feature strongly today, both for paths south to Spain and Portugal, as well as speculative options from SE Britain and near continent to the Faeroes and Iceland. There are of course further elements of the main Atlantic jet stream which could lead to paths to the Americas again later today.

    Lastly, a look at the major jet stream components over Russia and Scandinavia shows there are plenty of strong generators of gravity waves. This forms part of a marked waving jet stream flow across northern Russia to provide stepping stone positions of Es for multi-hop paths to JA and BG etc. I will add the European/Asian jet stream plot below the usual 4-up jet stream charts below.

    73 de Jim

    Actual measured 300hPa (hPa = mb) flow at midnight showing jet stream segments across Russia to the Far East.
  16. Saturday 3rd June 2017

    A good start to the day with a full complement of jet streams over northern and western Europe, plus a strong upper ridge from Scandinavia to the Alps. The 6m openings so far seem to suggest the northern part of the ridge is the more important, but it is entirely possible that the real cause of the two discrete areas of activity over eastern Sweden and the Baltic states are due to the entrance region of the northwesterly jet stream, rather than the ridge, which follows it. This may prove to be too far away for access form the UKSMG 6m contesters in the UK.

    Riding to the rescue, there is another jet stream from Spain, across western France and the UK towards Iceland and later nudging into Norway later. This could be used from the UK and has already provided a few paths into the continent. There have also been paths from southern Scandinavia to Iceland and Greenland across the northern end of this jet stream. I imagine that the southern end of this will play a role to the south into Spain and the western Mediterranean as the southwesterly jet interacts with the Pyrenees, whilst the northern end should favour paths to Scandinavia and the Baltic later.

    Another set of paths exists across the eastern Mediterranean basin due to the small jet stream around the rim of the a cut-off upper low over the Adriatic. This region is too far away for to be used as a first hop path, but could prove useful for multi-hop paths to the Middle East, for example.

    Lastly a brief mention of the Atlantic, which again seems fully set up with jet stream activity and, if anything, intensifying during today, so the optimistic may want to turn beams across the pond later today.

    73 de Jim

    PS RSGB HF CW NFD this weekend and Es can gain valuable points on the higher HF bands, so the above applies equally to say 15m and 10m.

  17. Sunday 4th June 2017

    There have been some nice early openings on 6m this morning, activity aided by the UKSMG contest as much as the Es, but it has highlighted some areas worth exploring today.
    The strong upper trough and jet stream circulation around it have produced some busy traffic from within Europe to the southeast into the Ukraine, as well as few north-south paths from the Balkans to Scandinavia. This part of the pattern is edging slowly eastwards swill not necessarily be a focus for UK stations unless part of a multi-hop chain to the Middle and Far East.
    The jet stream wave train has virtually got a complete link through Scandinavia and across the UK . Not very strong, but it does cross the Norwegian mountains, so will be worth monitoring for paths to Scandinavia from the UK, even if not present at the moment.
    The southern portion of the Atlantic jet stream has good potential today as it moves into the Iberian peninsula, and there will continue to be options for paths across the Pyrenees to Spain and Portugal and the Canaries. Just ahead of this, the southwesterly flow, presently over the Pyrenees will move away to the east and improve the chances of paths across the Alps to Italy later today and tomorrow.
    The Atlantic part of the jet stream is currently set up well for paths to the States across the pond later today.

    73 de Jim

    PS Again, these comments should also apply to HF CW NFD folk on 10m.

  18. Monday 5th June 2017

    A busy weekend for Es and this morning is still delivering some results on 10m and 6m. Once again, we have no shortage of jet streams to activate the gravity waves which can propagate from the weather up to the E region.

    The main morning focus is over the near continent across the southwesterly jet stream over France and Germany. This will ease a bit farther away to the east, but should still be effective for Es from the UK.

    Other paths across Biscay to the Azores and south to the Canaries and southern Spain are probably part of the northwesterly jet stream effects, which will also remain place during the rest of today.

    The paths across Sweden fit in with the southwesterly jet stream across southern Scandinavia, while the deep trough over Russia also plays a role in any paths faster east across northern Russia.

    The longer range multi-hop paths over the Atlantic are in a good place again for Stateside contacts later today.

    73 de Jim

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  19. Tuesday 6th June 2017

    Sorry for the late appearance today, there is a lot of weather about and been very busy. To complete the daily routine, I have belatedly added some comments which can accompany the day's 4-up chart set.

    The main feature is the very sharp upper trough which is crossing the country and the driving force of the very wet and windy weather across much of the UK. The late afternoon paths on 6m are probably connected with the region of rapidly falling contour values over the Low Countries and Germany, which have produced not only a strong southerly jet stream, but also thrown up a strong upper ridge just ahead of the trough over Poland. On the day's satellite pictures it is very obvious that an active cold front with a line of severe thunderstorms is moving east across this part of Europe and it is not a surprise to see turbulence generated here triggering some Es. It is just difficult to say which of the many options is actually the guilty party.

    Another part of Europe showing Es activity is to be found over the Pyrenees, and this is the northwesterly jet stream on the western side of the upper trough over the UK. This also connects with the circulation around a cut-off upper low in the central Mediterranean and probably explains the random paths over the Mediterranean.

    The last comment to make is that the Atlantic remains fully stocked with active jet stream segments where speeds exceed 100kt in places and therefore a look to the west across the pond may be worthwhile this evening.

    73 de Jim

  20. Wednesday 7th June 2017

    The very unsettled weather over the last two days has been a direct result of the active jet stream pattern across the Atlantic and into northern Europe.

    Paths so far this morning suggest that the southeasterly jet stream into southern Scandinavia is playing a part in QSOs on 6m. This jet stream segment is part of the upper flow around the sharp upper trough which is moving east into northern Europe. This flow also impacts on the Alps and probably supports the group of QSOs between UK and Italy earlier. Any path from the UK will probably cross this turbulence-producing jet stream flow and make a check for Es worth factoring into the day's activities.

    The small low over the central Mediterranean is associated with some stronger winds around it and across Cyprus into Turkey. This should bring the odd path across the eastern Mediterranean basin, say between 4X4 and the Balkans.

    The Atlantic has a strong jet stream flow present again today and should continue to make beaming west the the States and Caribbean worth considering later.

    73 de Jim


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